The most well known of all language families is the Indo-European, which comprises roughly 12 major groups and hundreds of languages. The major groups or subfamilies are Celtic, Italic (including Romance), Baltic, Slavic, Germanic, Anatolian, Greek, Indic, Iranian, Tocharian, Albanian, and Armenian. In addition, it appears that Baltic and Slavic should form a larger Balto-Slavic group, and Indic and Iranian should be placed in an Indo-Iranian group.
Here's small list of words common to most Indo-European languages:
Another large language family is the Sino-Tibetan, including Sinitic (all forms of Chinese) on one main branch and Tibeto-Burman (Tibetan, Burmese, and thousands of others) on the other main branch.
In the following example tones are omitted so that I have less work
to do :) Also, note that I threw out Pinyin transliteration for Mandarin
and used something of my own that also works for other dialects: /ś/ corresponds
to voiceless palatal fricative (/x/ in Pinyin) much like /ch/ in German
/x/ is the voiceless velar fricative like /ch/ in Scottish
/ə/ is the central vowel schwa; /ʔ/ is
the glottal stop; and /C/ means any stop consonant.
One of the most well studies language groups in the Americas is the Uto-Aztecan, or Yuto-Nahuan, family. It currently stretches from western and southwestern United States to El Salvador, although in the past it reached the northwestern parts of Costa Rica. The most famous language of this group is Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs.